How does the fruit tree prevent cold spring?
1. Pay attention to weather changes and raise awareness of prevention. Try to set up your own temperature and ground temperature observation records in the park, and pay attention to weather changes and weather forecasts at any time. Especially before the fruit tree sprouts, on the basis of understanding the long-term weather forecast of the local meteorological department, keep an eye on the short-term weather forecast for the flowering period. The time and intensity of frost occurrence, and take emergency precautions as soon as possible.
2. Create a microclimate environment that is conducive to the growth of fruit trees. First, choose the southward or southeast slope of the leeward sun to avoid building a garden in low-lying areas and closed valleys. The second is to create a shelterbelt in the main wind direction of the orchard. The shelterbelt can not only effectively prevent wind, but also raise the ground temperature and prevent frost in early spring.
3. Emergency anti-frost measures.
(1) Smoke and frost protection. The fumigation method is currently the most widely used method. When the cold current arrives, smoke in the orchard as soon as possible: preferably before the night temperature drops to 0 °C. The number of smokers is at least 5-6 piles per acre, evenly distributed in all directions. The haystack is 1.5 meters high and the bottom diameter is 1.5-1.7 meters. When the grass is piled up, several thick wooden sticks are inserted straight and obliquely, and the venting holes are taken out after the smashing. The flammable material is placed inside the haystack by a hole, and the grass is covered with a layer of wet grass or wet mud. This amount of smoke is sufficient and lasts for a long time. The fumigation material can be used as a flammable material or a smoker (such as 3 parts of ammonium nitrate, 8-10 parts of sawdust, and 3 parts of diesel oil) which can generate a large amount of smoke such as straw, weeds, and fallen leaves.
(2) Irrigation and whitening in early spring. In areas where frequent night frost occurs frequently, measures such as early spring irrigation and whitening of trees are used to reduce the ground temperature and tree temperature, delay the germination and flowering period, and avoid frost damage.
(3) Watering and spraying water in the orchard before frost. The irrigation of the orchard not only increases the soil water content, but also increases the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the soil. The temperature decreases during the day and the temperature rises at night. The air close to the ground will not be hot and cold, and the temperature will be extremely strong. Regulation. Therefore, before the low temperature occurs, the orchard irrigation can prevent and slow down the damage of the frost. It is observed that the temperature of the tree after irrigation can be 1-2 °C higher than that of the non-irrigation at night. The crown sprays water, and the water condenses into ice, releasing latent heat, which can raise the temperature and mitigate the frost damage.
(4) Spray salt water on the tree. Pay attention to the weather forecast and spray 10%-15% saline on the tree before the cold damage. In doing so, it is possible to resist freezing by increasing the concentration of the somatic cell fluid; the freezing damage of the tree can also be alleviated by condensation of water and gas.
(5) Spray chemicals and fertilizers before flowering. Spraying 800 times liquid before the flower, such as Jiameijin point, plant cell membrane steady-state agent can increase the toughness of the cell membrane and improve the cold resistance of the tree. The bud period sprays 800 times liquid Jiamei brain white gold, 1000 times liquid gold spot, etc., which can increase the cell liquid concentration of flower, young fruit and shoots, enhance the anti-freezing ability, and at the same time increase the nutrition of flower organs.
(6) Ignite against frost candles. Before the cold spring comes, you need to prepare enough against frost candles in advance. As a vineyards anti frost candle wholesaler, the against frost candles we produce can burn more than 8 hours per barrel. This is also the most appropriate against frost candle for fruit tree managers.
4. Strengthen cultivation management and improve tree resistance.
(1) Select a variety that is resistant to low temperature. Generally, late-maturing varieties are more resistant to freezing, and varieties with the ability to produce buds are also more resistant to freezing.
(2) Reasonable load. Excessive load, not only reduce the quality, can not sell a good price, but also cause the fruit tree new shoots are not mature or mature, thin and emptiness, extremely cold-resistant.
(3) Scientific fertilization. Regardless of the seedlings that were planted in the same year, or the result garden, avoid applying nitrogen fertilizer in early spring to prevent excessive growth; increase the application of phosphorus, potassium and calcium micro-package fertilizer Jiamei profit, foliar spray of quicklime, potassium sulfate and growth inhibitory substances, promote branches The buds are full, and the formation of autumn shoots is controlled or prosperous; after harvesting, organic fertilizer should be added to enhance tree potential and nutrient accumulation, and improve antifreeze ability.
(4) Strengthen the trimming. It is necessary to strengthen the pruning of the growing season, such as the strong growth ability of the grape shoots. If it is not topping, it can grow indefinitely until the autumn, such new shoots are not full, and are not resistant to freezing. In order to prevent freezing, it is also a good harvest for the next year. It is necessary to pick up the new shoots of the grapes in time and repeatedly, so as to cultivate new shoots with large and thick leaves, full buds and mature branches, which not only has strong results in the next year, but also is extremely resistant to freezing.
(5) Control pests and diseases. Pests and diseases seriously affect the maturity of new shoots and the quality of branches and leaves. It is necessary to prevent and control, so that the tree production can accumulate more photosynthetic products, enhance tree potential and improve resistance.
5. Innovative cultivation mode.
With the frequent damage of night frost, some tree species with high output value and suitable facilities, such as large cherry, peach, plum, apricot, grape, etc., should increase the scale of facility cultivation, so as to effectively avoid the night frost while increasing the output value. Hazard. In addition, the orchard adopts new technologies such as grass, grass covering and sprinkler irrigation, and the effect of reducing night frost damage is also significant.
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